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Table of contents
To John Ray, the famous English naturalist , the credit is generally given of first making species a definite term in zoology and botany, but Ray owed much of his classification to Kaspar or Gaspard Bauhin , profressor of Greek and of Anatomy and Botany at Basel, and much of his clear definition of terms to an unpublished MS. In he was appointed geologist and naturalist to the North American boundary commission, and two years later he joined the staff of the geological survey of Canada, of which he became assistant director in , and director in Schemes which set up a larger number of distinct races, such as the eleven of Pickering, the fifteen of Bory de St Vincent and the sixteen of Desmoulins, have the advantage of finding niches for most well-defined human varieties; but no modern naturalist would be likely to adopt any one of these as it stands.
Naturalist , , pp. But the first real important work was undertaken by the Swedish naturalist , Georg Wahlenberg , who in explored the central Carpathians as a botanist, but afterwards also made topographical and geological studies of the system. The males appear to compete with each other in the brilliancy of their melody, in order to attract the females, which, according to the German naturalist Johann Matthaiis Bechstein always select the best singers for their mates. To the naturalist the Malay Archipelago is a region of the highest interest; and from an early period it has attracted the attention of explorers of the first rank.
For the study of freshwater Entomostraca large possibilities are now opened to the naturalist. The English naturalist , Robert Townson, explored the Tatra in and , and was the first to make a few reliable measurements.
Guppy, Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific, London, seq. The brilliant French naturalist Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon , in Les Epoques de la nature, included in his vast speculations the theory of alternate submergence and emergence of the continents. In the hawk cemeteries birds were pickled and buried in long bundles, forming sometimes an assortment that is not without incongruities from the naturalist 's point of view.
Their affinities with the lower Crustacea were recognized by Cuvier and his contemporaries, but it was one of the brilliant discoveries of that remarkable and too-little-honoured naturalist , J. The thread so ejected forms the silk of commerce, which as wound in the cocoon consists of filaments seriposited from two separate glands discovered by an Italian naturalist named Filippi containing a glutinous or resinous secretion which serves a double purpose, viz. Timothy Pickering's grandson, Charles Pickering , graduated at Harvard College in and at the Harvard Medical School in , practised medicine in Philadelphia, was naturalist to the Wilkes exploring expedition of , and intravelled in East Africa and India.
There is a summary of Rothpletz's results in American Naturalist , xxv. He was by turns naturalist , lyrist and symbolist; and it has been claimed that the germs of all the later developments in Belgian letters may be traced in his work. The decision as to whether it is the course of variation or the course of selection that has been different in different localities can be made only by the field naturalist and the experimental breeder. To the naturalist Lombok is of particular interest as the frontier island of the Australian region, with its cockatoos and megapods or moundbuilders, its peculiar bee-eaters and ground thrushes.
For the naturalist they have the recommendation that many are easy to obtain, that most, apart from the very minute, are easy to handle, and that all, except as to the fleeting colours, are easy to preserve. In the vicinity of Wakefield is Walton Hall, the residence of the famous naturalist Charles Waterton The strawberry is also indigenous to these latitudes on both sides of the Andes, and Chile is credited 1 Notes of a Naturalist in South America, p.
It has a length, together with its ramifications, of over 5 miles, and is formed of two caverns - one known for several centuries, and another discovered by the naturalist Adolf Schmidl in For the naturalist Ceram is without much interest, lacking characteristic species or abundance of specimens. Ega de Queiroz q.
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The next expedition was that of the naturalist Karl von Baer in Darwin in England at once recognized his own theory in the manuscript essay sent by the young and almost unknown naturalist in the tropics, then a stranger to him. Zola was the apostle of the "realistic" or " naturalist ic" school; but he was in truth not a " naturalist " at all, in so far as "naturalism" is to be regarded as a record of fact.
But an ancient form which possessed many characters common to the Catarhine and Platyrhine monkeys, and others in an intermediate condition, and some few perhaps distinct from those now present in either group, would undoubtedly have been ranked, if seen by a naturalist , as an ape or a monkey. Ruppell, the German naturalist , visited the country in , and remained nearly two years. In the square there is a statue of the naturalist , Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, who was born in Etampes. Their language is closely allied to that called Old Tehuelche; it is a hard, slow-spoken speech, not at all resembling the soft, rapidly-spoken language of the Yagans, which has many points Notes of a Naturalist in South America London, The district of Spitalfields has an old association with the silk-weaving industry; a trade in singing birds is also characteristic of this district; and in Ratcliff the well-known naturalist 's firm of Jamrach is situated.
Bates The Naturalist on the Amazons , " is one of the stupidest animals I ever met. Both breeds, which have short tails and small horns present only in the rams , were regarded by the German naturalist Fitzinger as specifically distinct from the domesticated Ovis cries of Europe; and for the first type he proposed the name 0. It has, however, been demonstrated that the senile whitening of human hair is due to the presence of phagocytes, which devour the pigment-bodies; and from microscopic observations recently made by the French naturalist Dr E.
This doctrine is now receiving widespread acceptation among anatomical naturalist s; and in the American Naturalist for , Dr W. Earle, in the American Naturalist for , observes that " so far as the palaeontological evidence goes it is decidedly in favour of the view that apes and lemurs are closely related. The fauna of Madagascar, while deficient in most of the characteristic tropical forms of life, is one of great interest to the naturalist from its remote affinities, much of its animal life having Asiatic rather than African relationships.
Moseley, Notes by a Naturalist on the " Challenger " new ed.
Foremost among the latter was the distinguished Swiss naturalist and bee-keeper, Francois Huber, who was led to construct the leaf-hive bearing his name after experimenting with a single comb observatory hive recommended by Reaumur. His strong naturalist tendencies are not, however, properly to be realized without a glance at the history of his younger brothers. To be a typical parish natural history so far as completeness or order is concerned, it has of course no pretensions; batches of letters, an essay on antiquities, a naturalist 's calendar and miscellaneous jottings of all kinds are but the unsystematized material of the work proper, which was never written.
The encyclopaedic interest in nature, although in White's day culminating in the monumental synthesis of Buffon, was also disappearing before the analytic specialism inaugurated by Linnaeus; yet the catholic interests of the simple naturalist of Selborne fully reappear a century later in the greater naturalist of Down, Charles Darwin.
The microscope stands described above can be used for the greater number of the naturalist 's experiments. His grandfather was Erasmus Darwin, an eminent naturalist and poet. The cacao tree was named by the 17th century Swedish naturalist , Linnaeus.
We found it in the McGillivray Center, built to honor a celebrated naturalist. There is also a Victorian naturalist 's study in the Natural History Gallery. A noted naturalist , he served on Sir John Franklin's arctic expeditions. Hooker had a smoother transition from medical student to ship's naturalist.
The attractive village of Selborne and its beautiful countryside is famous for its association with the 18th century naturalist Gilbert White. The most northerly point in Russia, this archipelago of islands is a naturalist 's Paradise. The case for inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears pretty straightforward, the position with regard to spiritual intelligence is far more complex.
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There is another sturgeon being kept in captivity in a pond by a heavily bearded and formally unqualified naturalist living near Loch Ness. Petasus and other genera make up this family, founded by Haeckel, but no other naturalist has ever seen them, and it is probable that they are simply immature forms of other genera.. Maupertuis, who, together with Voltaire, introduced the new idea of the universe as based on Newton's discoveries, sought to account for the origin of organic things by the hypothesis of sentient atoms.
Buffon the naturalist speculated, not only on the structure and genesis of organic beings, but also on the course of formation of the earth and solar system, which he conceived after the analogy of the development of organic beings out of seed. Nearly the whole of their results, it may here be said, were summed up in the important Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica of the first-named naturalist , which saw the light in - the year of its author's death - but, owing to circumstances over which he had no control, was not generally accessible till twenty years later.
But, confining ourselves to what is here our special business, it is to be remarked that perhaps the heaviest blow dealt at these strange doctrines was that delivered by Rennie, who, in an edition of Montagu's Ornithological Dictionary pp. This did not hinder Swainson, who had succeeded in getting the ornithological portion of the first zoological work ever published at the expense of the British government namely, the Fauna BorealiAmericana executed in accordance with his own opinions, from maintaining them more strongly than ever in several of the volumes treating of Natural History which he contributed to the Cabinet Cyclopaedia - among others that from which we have just given some extracts - and in what may be deemed the culmination in England of the Quinary System, the volume of the " Naturalist 's Library " on The Natural Arrangement and History of Flycatchers, published in , of which unhappy performance mention has already been made in this present work vol.
It has already been mentioned that Macgillivray contributed to Audubon's Ornithological Biography a series of descriptions of some parts of the anatomy of American birds, from Mac- gillivray subjects supplied to him by that enthusiastic naturalist , and whose zeal and prescience, it may be called, in this respect merits all praise.
On the fitting out of the first Grinnell expedition, in , to search for Sir John Franklin, Kane was appointed surgeon and naturalist under Lieut. The fauna of Siberia is closely akin to that of central Europe; and the Ural Mountains, although the habitat of a few species which warrant the naturalist in regarding the southern Urals as a separate region,, are not so important a boundary zoologically as they are botanically.
A striking illustration of this extraordinary profusion was given by'the English naturalist H. The first naturalist to put into practical form the consequences of the new theory, in so far as it affected zoological classification, was Ernst Haeckel of Jena b. Again, the physician as naturalist , though stimulated by the pathologist to delineate disease in its fuller manifestations, yet was hampered in a measure by the didactic method of constructing "types" which should command the attention of the disciple and rivet themselves on his memory; thus too often those incipient and transitory phases which initiate the paths of dissolution were missed.
The duck-billed platypus Platypus anatinus was the name assigned to one of the most remarkable of known animals by George Shaw , who had the good fortune to introduce it to the notice of the scientific world in the Naturalist 's Miscellany vol.
In a common gall-nut that authority distinguished seven constituent portions: an epidermis; a subdermic cellular tissue; a spongy and a hard layer, composing 1 P. Cameron, Scottish Naturalist , ii. He early attracted the notice of Sir Roderick Murchison, through whom he was appointed surgeon and naturalist to the Niger expedition sent out in by Macgregor Laird with government support.
Shull American Naturalist , xxxvi. The great Swedish naturalist was possibly justified in treating the two latter creatures as quasihuman, for they seem to be grotesque exaggerations of such tailed and hairy human beings as really, though rarely, occur, and are apt to be exhibited as monstrosities see Bastian and Hartmann, Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie, Index, " Geschwanzte Menschen "; Gould and Pile, Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine, Guppy, Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific , vol.
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He is realistic and idealistic, individualistic and universalistic, monistic and dualistic, sensationalist and intellectualist, naturalist and super naturalist , rationalist and mystic, gnostic and agnostic. He is the prince of the Vermittler in philosophy, ethics, religion and theology. Bennett Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia , " is by one of the hind legs; its powerful resistance and the sharpness of the spines will soon oblige the captor, attempting to seize it by any other part of the body, to relinquish his hold.
Topside attractions are no less worthy of being visited - they 're a naturalist 's dream. We were in the heart of the vast solitudes of the Eiger, which seemed astonished by the echoes of our steps. We often made use of the ladder. By the third time I had recovered my liberty of action, and no longer descended backward, but contemplating with an undefinable charm the gaping gulfs which vanished in the obscure recesses of the glacier, bluer than the skies of the East.
We wore blue glasses to protect our eyes from the dazzling brilliancy of the snow, which every moment became less compact. Almer had even covered his face with a green veil, but mine I found inconvenient, and resolutely exposed my skin to the burning rays of the sun, which were reflected from the glittering frozen surfaces, though the sun itself was hidden by clouds. The fissures in the glacier were few and very narrow, and we employed the ladder but once or twice in the immense plain of powdery snow which, towards eight o'clock, opened before us.